Big Data

End-to-end development lifecycle for data engineers to build a data integration pipeline using AWS Glue


Data is a key enabler for your business. Many AWS customers have integrated their data across multiple data sources using AWS Glue, a serverless data integration service, in order to make data-driven business decisions. To grow the power of data at scale for the long term, it’s highly recommended to design an end-to-end development lifecycle for your data integration pipelines. The following are common asks from our customers:

  • Is it possible to develop and test AWS Glue data integration jobs on my local laptop?
  • Are there recommended approaches to provisioning components for data integration?
  • How can we build a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline for our data integration pipeline?
  • What is the best practice to move from a pre-production environment to production?

To tackle these asks, this post defines the development lifecycle for data integration and demonstrates how software engineers and data engineers can design an end-to-end development lifecycle using AWS Glue, including development, testing, and CI/CD, using a sample baseline template.

End-to-end development lifecycle for a data integration pipeline

Today, it’s common to define not only data integration jobs but also all the data components in code. This means that you can rely on standard software best practices to build your data integration pipeline. The software development lifecycle on AWS defines the following six phases: Plan, Design, Implement, Test, Deploy, and Maintain.

In this section, we discuss each phase in the context of data integration pipeline.

Plan

In the planning phase, developers collect requirements from stakeholders such as end-users to define a data requirement. This could be what the use cases are (for example, ad hoc queries, dashboard, or troubleshooting), how much data to process (for example, 1 TB per day), what kinds of data, how many different data sources to pull from, how much data latency to accept to make it queryable (for example, 15 minutes), and so on.

Design

In the design phase, you analyze requirements and identify the best solution to build the data integration pipeline. In AWS, you need to choose the right services to achieve the goal and come up with the architecture by integrating those services and defining dependencies between components. For example, you may choose AWS Glue jobs as a core component for loading data from different sources, including Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), then integrating them and preprocessing and enriching data. Then you may want to chain multiple AWS Glue jobs and orchestrate them. Finally, you may want to use Amazon Athena and Amazon QuickSight to present the enriched data to end-users.

Implement

In the implementation phase, data engineers code the data integration pipeline. They analyze the requirements to identify coding tasks to achieve the final result. The code includes the following:

  • AWS resource definition
  • Data integration logic

When using AWS Glue, you can define the data integration logic in a job script, which can be written in Python or Scala. You can use your preferred IDE to implement AWS resource definition using the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) or AWS CloudFormation, and also the business logic of AWS Glue job scripts for data integration. To learn more about how to implement your AWS Glue job scripts locally, refer to Develop and test AWS Glue version 3.0 and 4.0 jobs locally using a Docker container.

Test

In the testing phase, you check the implementation for bugs. Quality analysis includes testing the code for errors and checking if it meets the requirements. Because many teams immediately test the code you write, the testing phase often runs parallel to the development phase. There are different types of testing:

  • Unit testing
  • Integration testing
  • Performance testing

For unit testing, even for data integration, you can rely on a standard testing framework such as pytest and ScalaTest. To learn more about how to achieve unit testing locally, refer to Develop and test AWS Glue version 3.0 and 4.0 jobs locally using a Docker container.

Deploy

When data engineers develop a data integration pipeline, you code and test on a different copy of the product than the one that the end-users have access to. The environment that end-users use is called production, whereas other copies are said to be in the development or the pre-production environment.

Having separate build and production environments ensures that you can continue to use the data integration pipeline even while it’s being changed or upgraded. The deployment phase includes several tasks to move the latest build copy to the production environment, such as packaging, environment configuration, and installation.

The following components are deployed through the AWS CDK or AWS CloudFormation:

  • AWS resources
  • Data integration job scripts for AWS Glue

AWS CodePipeline helps you to build a mechanism to automate deployments among different environments, including development, pre-production, and production. When you commit your code to AWS CodeCommit, CodePipeline automatically provisions AWS resources based on the CloudFormation templates included in the commit and uploads script files included in the commit to Amazon S3.

Maintain

Even after you deploy your solution to a production environment, it’s not the end of your project. You need to monitor the data integration pipeline continuously and keep maintaining and improving it. More specifically, you also need to fix bugs, resolve customer issues, and manage software changes. In addition, you need to monitor the overall system performance, security, and user experience to identify new ways to improve the existing data integration pipeline.

Solution overview

Typically, you have multiple accounts to manage and provision resources for your data pipeline. In this post, we assume the following three accounts:

  • Pipeline account – This hosts the end-to-end pipeline
  • Dev account – This hosts the integration pipeline in the development environment
  • Prod account – This hosts the data integration pipeline in the production environment

If you want, you can use the same account and the same Region for all three.

To start applying this end-to-end development lifecycle model to your data platform easily and quickly, we prepared the baseline template aws-glue-cdk-baseline using the AWS CDK. The template is built on top of AWS CDK v2 and CDK Pipelines. It provisions two kinds of stacks:

  • AWS Glue app stack – This provisions the data integration pipeline: one in the dev account and one in the prod account
  • Pipeline stack – This provisions the Git repository and CI/CD pipeline in the pipeline account

The AWS Glue app stack provisions the data integration pipeline, including the following resources:

  • AWS Glue jobs
  • AWS Glue job scripts

The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

At the time of publishing of this post, the AWS CDK has two versions of the AWS Glue module: @aws-cdk/aws-glue and @aws-cdk/aws-glue-alpha, containing L1 constructs and L2 constructs, respectively. The sample AWS Glue app stack is defined using aws-glue-alpha, the L2 construct for AWS Glue, because it’s straightforward to define and manage AWS Glue resources. If you want to use the L1 construct, refer to Build, Test and Deploy ETL solutions using AWS Glue and AWS CDK based CI/CD pipelines.

The pipeline stack provisions the entire CI/CD pipeline, including the following resources:

The following diagram illustrates the pipeline workflow.

Every time the business requirement changes (such as adding data sources or changing data transformation logic), you make changes on the AWS Glue app stack and re-provision the stack to reflect your changes. This is done by committing your changes in the AWS CDK template to the CodeCommit repository, then CodePipeline reflects the changes on AWS resources using CloudFormation change sets.

In the following sections, we present the steps to set up the required environment and demonstrate the end-to-end development lifecycle.

Prerequisites

You need the following resources:

Initialize the project

To initialize the project, complete the following steps:

  1. Clone the baseline template to your workplace:
    $ git clone git@github.com:aws-samples/aws-glue-cdk-baseline.git
    $ cd aws-glue-cdk-baseline.git

  2. Create a Python virtual environment specific to the project on the client machine:

We use a virtual environment in order to isolate the Python environment for this project and not install software globally.

  1. Activate the virtual environment according to your OS:
    • On MacOS and Linux, use the following command:
      $ source .venv/bin/activate

    • On a Windows platform, use the following command:
      % .venv\Scripts\activate.bat

After this step, the subsequent steps run within the bounds of the virtual environment on the client machine and interact with the AWS account as needed.

  1. Install the required dependencies described in requirements.txt to the virtual environment:
    $ pip install -r requirements.txt
    $ pip install -r requirements-dev.txt

  2. Edit the configuration file default-config.yaml based on your environments (replace each account ID with your own):
    pipelineAccount:
    awsAccountId: 123456789101
    awsRegion: us-east-1
    
    devAccount:
    awsAccountId: 123456789102
    awsRegion: us-east-1
    
    prodAccount:
    awsAccountId: 123456789103
    awsRegion: us-east-1

  3. Run pytest to initialize the snapshot test files by running the following command:
    $ python3 -m pytest --snapshot-update

Bootstrap your AWS environments

Run the following commands to bootstrap your AWS environments:

  1. In the pipeline account, replace PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER, REGION, and PIPELINE-PROFILE with your own values:
    $ cdk bootstrap aws://<PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/<REGION> --profile <PIPELINE-PROFILE> \
    --cloudformation-execution-policies arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AdministratorAccess

  2. In the dev account, replace PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER, DEV-ACCOUNT-NUMBER, REGION, and DEV-PROFILE with your own values:
    $ cdk bootstrap aws://<DEV-ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/<REGION> --profile <DEV-PROFILE> \
    --cloudformation-execution-policies arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AdministratorAccess \
    --trust <PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER>

  3. In the prod account, replace PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER, PROD-ACCOUNT-NUMBER, REGION, and PROD-PROFILE with your own values:
    $ cdk bootstrap aws://<PROD-ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/<REGION> --profile <PROD-PROFILE> \
    --cloudformation-execution-policies arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AdministratorAccess \
    --trust <PIPELINE-ACCOUNT-NUMBER>

When you use only one account for all environments, you can just run the cdk bootstrap command one time.

Deploy your AWS resources

Run the command using the pipeline account to deploy the resources defined in the AWS CDK baseline template:

$ cdk deploy --profile <PIPELINE-PROFILE>

This creates the pipeline stack in the pipeline account and the AWS Glue app stack in the development account.

When the cdk deploy command is completed, let’s verify the pipeline using the pipeline account.

On the CodePipeline console, navigate to GluePipeline. Then verify that GluePipeline has the following stages: Source, Build, UpdatePipeline, Assets, DeployDev, and DeployProd. Also verify that the stages Source, Build, UpdatePipeline, Assets, DeployDev have succeeded, and DeployProd is pending. It can take about 15 minutes.

Now that the pipeline has been created successfully, you can also verify the AWS Glue app stack resource on the AWS CloudFormation console in the dev account.

At this step, the AWS Glue app stack is deployed only in the dev account. You can try to run the AWS Glue job ProcessLegislators to see how it works.

Configure your Git repository with CodeCommit

In an earlier step, you cloned the Git repository from GitHub. Although it’s possible to configure the AWS CDK template to work with GitHub, GitHub Enterprise, or Bitbucket, for this post, we use CodeCommit. If you prefer those third-party Git providers, configure the connections and edit pipeline_stack.py to define the variable source to use the target Git provider using CodePipelineSource.

Because you already ran the cdk deploy command, the CodeCommit repository has already been created with all the required code and related files. The first step is to set up access to CodeCommit. The next step is to clone the repository from the CodeCommit repository to your local. Run the following commands:

$ mkdir aws-glue-cdk-baseline-codecommit
$ cd aws-glue-cdk-baseline-codecommit
$ git clone ssh://git-codecommit.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/v1/repos/aws-glue-cdk-baseline

In the next step, we make changes in this local copy of the CodeCommit repository.

End-to-end development lifecycle

Now that the environment has been successfully created, you’re ready to start developing a data integration pipeline using this baseline template. Let’s walk through end-to-end development lifecycle.

When you want to define your own data integration pipeline, you need to add more AWS Glue jobs and implement job scripts. For this post, let’s assume the use case to add a new AWS Glue job with a new job script to read multiple S3 locations and join them.

Implement and test in your local environment

First, implement and test the AWS Glue job and its job script in your local environment using Visual Studio Code.

Set up your development environment by following the steps in Develop and test AWS Glue version 3.0 and 4.0 jobs locally using a Docker container. The following steps are required in the context of this post:

  1. Start Docker.
  2. Pull the Docker image that has the local development environment using the AWS Glue ETL library:
    $ docker pull public.ecr.aws/glue/aws-glue-libs:glue_libs_4.0.0_image_01

  3. Run the following command to define the AWS named profile name:
    $ PROFILE_NAME="<DEV-PROFILE>"

  4. Run the following command to make it available with the baseline template:
    $ cd aws-glue-cdk-baseline/
    $ WORKSPACE_LOCATION=$(pwd)

  5. Run the Docker container:
    $ docker run -it -v ~/.aws:/home/glue_user/.aws -v $WORKSPACE_LOCATION:/home/glue_user/workspace/ -e AWS_PROFILE=$PROFILE_NAME -e DISABLE_SSL=true 
    --rm -p 4040:4040 -p 18080:18080 
    --name glue_pyspark public.ecr.aws/glue/aws-glue-libs:glue_libs_4.0.0_image_01 pyspark

  6. Start Visual Studio Code.
  7. Choose Remote Explorer in the navigation pane, then choose the arrow icon of the workspace folder in the container public.ecr.aws/glue/aws-glue-libs:glue_libs_4.0.0_image_01.

If the workspace folder is not shown, choose Open folder and select /home/glue_user/workspace.

Then you will see a view similar to the following screenshot.

Optionally, you can install AWS Tool Kit for Visual Studio Code, and start Amazon CodeWhisperer to enable code recommendations powered by machine learning model. For example, in aws_glue_cdk_baseline/job_scripts/process_legislators.py, you can put comments like “# Write a DataFrame in Parquet format to S3”, press Enter key, then CodeWhisperer will recommend a code snippet similar to the following:

CodeWhisperer on Visual Studio Code

Now you install the required dependencies described in requirements.txt to the container environment.

  1. Run the following commands in the terminal in Visual Studio Code:
    $ pip install -r requirements.txt
    $ pip install -r requirements-dev.txt

  2. Implement the code.

Now let’s make the required changes for a new AWS Glue job here.

  1. Edit the file aws_glue_cdk_baseline/glue_app_stack.py. Let’s add the following new code block after the existing job definition of ProcessLegislators in order to add the new AWS Glue job JoinLegislators:
            self.new_glue_job = glue.Job(self, "JoinLegislators",
                executable=glue.JobExecutable.python_etl(
                    glue_version=glue.GlueVersion.V4_0,
                    python_version=glue.PythonVersion.THREE,
                    script=glue.Code.from_asset(
                        path.join(path.dirname(__file__), "job_scripts/join_legislators.py")
                    )
                ),
                description="a new example PySpark job",
                default_arguments={
                    "--input_path_orgs": config[stage]['jobs']['JoinLegislators']['inputLocationOrgs'],
                    "--input_path_persons": config[stage]['jobs']['JoinLegislators']['inputLocationPersons'],
                    "--input_path_memberships": config[stage]['jobs']['JoinLegislators']['inputLocationMemberships']
                },
                tags={
                    "environment": self.environment,
                    "artifact_id": self.artifact_id,
                    "stack_id": self.stack_id,
                    "stack_name": self.stack_name
                }
            )

Here, you added three job parameters for different S3 locations using the variable config. It is the dictionary generated from default-config.yaml. In this baseline template, we use this central config file for managing parameters for all the Glue jobs in the structure <stage name>/jobs/<job name>/<parameter name>. In the proceeding steps, you provide those locations through the AWS Glue job parameters.

  1. Create a new job script called aws_glue_cdk_baseline/job_scripts/join_legislators.py:
    aws_glue_cdk_baseline/job_scripts/join_legislators.py:
    
    import sys
    from pyspark.context import SparkContext
    from awsglue.context import GlueContext
    from awsglue.job import Job
    from awsglue.transforms import Join
    from awsglue.utils import getResolvedOptions
    
    
    class JoinLegislators:
        def __init__(self):
            params = []
            if '--JOB_NAME' in sys.argv:
                params.append('JOB_NAME')
                params.append('input_path_orgs')
                params.append('input_path_persons')
                params.append('input_path_memberships')
            args = getResolvedOptions(sys.argv, params)
    
            self.context = GlueContext(SparkContext.getOrCreate())
            self.job = Job(self.context)
    
            if 'JOB_NAME' in args:
                jobname = args['JOB_NAME']
                self.input_path_orgs = args['input_path_orgs']
                self.input_path_persons = args['input_path_persons']
                self.input_path_memberships = args['input_path_memberships']
            else:
                jobname = "test"
                self.input_path_orgs = "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/organizations.json"
                self.input_path_persons = "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/persons.json"
                self.input_path_memberships = "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/memberships.json"
            self.job.init(jobname, args)
        
        def run(self):
            dyf = join_legislators(self.context, self.input_path_orgs, self.input_path_persons, self.input_path_memberships)
            df = dyf.toDF()
            df.printSchema()
            df.show()
            print(df.count())
    
    def read_dynamic_frame_from_json(glue_context, path):
        return glue_context.create_dynamic_frame.from_options(
            connection_type="s3",
            connection_options={
                'paths': [path],
                'recurse': True
            },
            format="json"
        )
    
    def join_legislators(glue_context, path_orgs, path_persons, path_memberships):
        orgs = read_dynamic_frame_from_json(glue_context, path_orgs)
        persons = read_dynamic_frame_from_json(glue_context, path_persons)
        memberships = read_dynamic_frame_from_json(glue_context, path_memberships)
        orgs = orgs.drop_fields(['other_names', 'identifiers']).rename_field('id', 'org_id').rename_field('name', 'org_name')
        dynamicframe_joined = Join.apply(orgs, Join.apply(persons, memberships, 'id', 'person_id'), 'org_id', 'organization_id').drop_fields(['person_id', 'org_id'])
        return dynamicframe_joined
    
    if __name__ == '__main__':
        JoinLegislators().run()

  2. Create a new unit test script for the new AWS Glue job called aws_glue_cdk_baseline/job_scripts/tests/test_join_legislators.py:
    import pytest
    import sys
    import join_legislators
    from pyspark.context import SparkContext
    from awsglue.context import GlueContext
    from awsglue.job import Job
    from awsglue.utils import getResolvedOptions
    
    @pytest.fixture(scope="module", autouse=True)
    def glue_context():
        sys.argv.append('--JOB_NAME')
        sys.argv.append('test_count')
    
        args = getResolvedOptions(sys.argv, ['JOB_NAME'])
        context = GlueContext(SparkContext.getOrCreate())
        job = Job(context)
        job.init(args['JOB_NAME'], args)
    
        yield(context)
    
    def test_counts(glue_context):
        dyf = join_legislators.join_legislators(glue_context, 
            "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/organizations.json",
            "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/persons.json", 
            "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/memberships.json")
        assert dyf.toDF().count() == 10439

  3. In default-config.yaml, add the following under prod and dev:
     JoinLegislators:
          inputLocationOrgs: "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/organizations.json"
          inputLocationPersons: "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/persons.json"
          inputLocationMemberships: "s3://awsglue-datasets/examples/us-legislators/all/memberships.json"

  4. Add the following under "jobs" in the variable config in tests/unit/test_glue_app_stack.py, tests/unit/test_pipeline_stack.py, and tests/snapshot/test_snapshot_glue_app_stack.py (no need to replace S3 locations):
    ,
                "JoinLegislators": {
                    "inputLocationOrgs": "s3://path_to_data_orgs",
                    "inputLocationPersons": "s3://path_to_data_persons",
                    "inputLocationMemberships": "s3://path_to_data_memberships"
                }

  5. Choose Run at the top right to run the individual job scripts.

If the Run button is not shown, install Python into the container through Extensions in the navigation pane.

  1. For local unit testing, run the following command in the terminal in Visual Studio Code:
    $ cd aws_glue_cdk_baseline/job_scripts/
    $ python3 -m pytest

Then you can verify that the newly added unit test passed successfully.

  1. Run pytest to initialize the snapshot test files by running following command:
    $ cd ../../
    $ python3 -m pytest --snapshot-update

Deploy to the development environment

Complete following steps to deploy the AWS Glue app stack to the development environment and run integration tests there:

  1. Set up access to CodeCommit.
  2. Commit and push your changes to the CodeCommit repo:
    $ git add .
    $ git commit -m "Add the second Glue job"
    $ git push

You can see that the pipeline is successfully triggered.

Integration test

There is nothing required for running the integration test for the newly added AWS Glue job. The integration test script integ_test_glue_app_stack.py runs all the jobs including a specific tag, then verifies the state and its duration. If you want to change the condition or the threshold, you can edit assertions at the end of the integ_test_glue_job method.

Deploy to the production environment

Complete the following steps to deploy the AWS Glue app stack to the production environment:

  1. On the CodePipeline console, navigate to GluePipeline.
  2. Choose Review under the DeployProd stage.
  3. Choose Approve.

Wait for the DeployProd stage to complete, then you can verify the AWS Glue app stack resource in the dev account.

Clean up

To clean up your resources, complete following steps:

  1. Run the following command using the pipeline account:
    $ cdk destroy --profile <PIPELINE-PROFILE>

  2. Delete the AWS Glue app stack in the dev account and prod account.

Conclusion

In this post, you learned how to define the development lifecycle for data integration and how software engineers and data engineers can design an end-to-end development lifecycle using AWS Glue, including development, testing, and CI/CD, through a sample AWS CDK template. You can get started building your own end-to-end development lifecycle for your workload using AWS Glue.


About the author

Noritaka Sekiyama is a Principal Big Data Architect on the AWS Glue team. He works based in Tokyo, Japan. He is responsible for building software artifacts to help customers. In his spare time, he enjoys cycling with his road bike.