Nanotechnology

Engineering magnetotactic bacteria MVs to synergize chemotherapy, ferroptosis and immunotherapy for augmented antitumor therapy


One main obstacle to targeted cancer therapies is the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which can facilitate tumor growth and induce resistance to antitumor treatments. Recent studies have indicated that treatment combined with immunotherapy often yields a better prognosis than monotherapy. Bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs), nanostructures released from the membrane of bacteria, can be used as natural nanocarriers for drug delivery and stimulate an immune response because of their immunogenicity. Inspired by the development of synergistic therapeutic strategies, we herein propose a novel nanovaccine-based platform to achieve chemotherapy, ferroptosis therapy, and immunotherapy simultaneously. By simply culturing magnetotactic bacteria in the medium with doxorubicin (DOX) and then extracting specialized MVs (BMVs), BMV@DOX, which are membrane vesicles containing iron ions and DOX, were obtained. We confirmed that in BMV@DOX, the BMV component can stimulate the innate immune system, DOX acts as the chemotherapeutic agent and iron ions will induce ferroptosis. Furthermore, BMV@DOX vesicles modified with DSPE-PEG-cRGD peptides (T-BMV@DOX) have minimized systemic toxicity and increased tumor-specificity. We demonstrated that the smart MVs-based nanovaccine system not only showed superior performance in the treatment of 4T1 breast cancer but also effectively restrained the growth of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR tumors in mice. Moreover, the nanovaccine could abrogate in vivo lung metastasis of tumor cells in a 4T1-Luc cell induced-lung breast cancer metastasis model. Collectively, the MVs-based nanoplatform offers an alternative promise for surmounting the limitations of monotherapy and may deserve further study for application in synergistic cancer therapy.

Graphical abstract: Engineering magnetotactic bacteria MVs to synergize chemotherapy, ferroptosis and immunotherapy for augmented antitumor therapy