Jackson KK, Mata C, Marcus RK. A rapid capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber spin-down tip approach for the isolation of plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) from 20 common fruit and vegetable sources. Talanta. 2022;252:123779.
Witwer KW, Wolfram J. Extracellular vesicles versus synthetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. Nat Reviews Mater. 2021;6:103–6.
Zhang X, Zhang HB, Gu JM, Zhang JY, Shi H, Qian H, Wang DQ, Xu WR, Pan JM, Santos HA. Engineered extracellular vesicles for cancer therapy. Adv Mater. 2021;33:25.
Van Niel G, D’Angelo G, Raposo G. Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2018;19:213–28.
Wiklander OPB, Brennan MA, Lotval J, Breakefield XO, El Andaloussi S. Advances in therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles. Sci Transl Med. 2019;11:15.
Luo RH, Liu MM, Tan TT, Yang Q, Wang Y, Men LH, Zhao LP, Zhang HH, Wang SL, Xie T, Tian QC. Emerging significance and therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles. Int J Biol Sci. 2021;17:2476–86.
Xue VW, Wong SCC, Song GQ, Cho WCS. Promising RNA-based cancer gene therapy using extracellular vesicles for drug delivery. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2020;20:767–77.
Li AX, Zhao YA, Li YX, Jiang LD, Gu YW, Liu JY. Cell-derived biomimetic nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy: cell membranes and extracellular vesicles. Drug Delivery. 2021;28:1237–55.
Morad G, Carman CV, Hagedorn EJ, Perlin JR, Zon LI, Mustafaoglu N, Park TE, Ingber DE, Daisy CC, Moses MA. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles breach the Intact blood-brain barrier via transcytosis. ACS Nano. 2019;13:13853–65.
Lee H, Park H, Noh GJ, Lee ES. pH-responsive hyaluronate-anchored extracellular vesicles to promote tumor-targeted drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;202:323–33.
Galieva LR, James V, Mukhamedshina YO, Rizvanov AA. Therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles for the treatment of nerve disorders. Front NeuroSci. 2019;13:9.
Lee JR, Park BW, Kim J, Choo YW, Kim HY, Yoon JK, Kim H, Hwang JW, Kang M, Kwon SP, et al. Nanovesicles derived from iron oxide nanoparticles-incorporated mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair. Sci Adv. 2020;6:14.
Armstrong JPK, Stevens MM. Strategic design of extracellular vesicle drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2018;130:12–6.
Sun DM, Zhuang XY, Xiang XY, Liu YL, Zhang SY, Liu CR, Barnes S, Grizzle W, Miller D, Zhang HG. A novel nanoparticle drug delivery system: the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin is enhanced when encapsulated in exosomes. Mol Ther. 2010;18:1606–14.
Hernandez-Oller L, Seras-Franzoso J, Andrade F, Rafael D, Abasolo I, Gener P, Schwartz S. Extracellular vesicles as drug delivery systems in cancer. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12:20.
Sil S, Dagur RS, Liao K, Peeples ES, Hu GK, Periyasamy P, Buch S. Strategies for the use of extracellular vesicles for the delivery of therapeutics. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2020;15:422–42.
Min L, Wang BS, Bao H, Li XR, Zhao LB, Meng JX, Wang ST. Advanced nanotechnologies for extracellular vesicle-based liquid biopsy. Adv Sci. 2021;8:28.
Liu JL, Chen Y, Pei F, Zeng CM, Yao Y, Liao W, Zhao ZH. Extracellular vesicles in liquid biopsies: potential for disease diagnosis. Biomed Res Int. 2021;2021:17.
Sharma S, Masud MK, Kaneti YV, Rewatkar P, Koradia A, Hossain MSA, Yamauchi Y, Popat A, Salomon C. Extracellular vesicle nanoarchitectonics for novel drug delivery applications. Small. 2021;17:22.
Geng TJ, Pan PT, Leung E, Chen Q, Chamley L, Wu ZM. Recent advancement and technical challenges in developing small extracellular vesicles for cancer drug delivery. Pharm Res. 2021;38:179–97.
Gurunathan S, Kang MH, Qasim M, Khan K, Kim JH. Biogenesis, membrane trafficking, functions, and next generation nanotherapeutics medicine of extracellular vesicles. Int J Nanomed. 2021;16:3357–83.
Teng F, Fussenegger M. Shedding light on extracellular vesicle biogenesis and bioengineering. Adv Sci. 2021;8:17.
Pirisinu M, Pham TC, Zhang DX, Hong TN, Nguyen LT, Le MTN. Extracellular vesicles as natural therapeutic agents and innate drug delivery systems for cancer treatment: recent advances, current obstacles, and challenges for clinical translation. Sem Cancer Biol. 2022;80:340–55.
Stremersch S, De Smedt SC, Raemdonck K. Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of extracellular vesicles. J Controlled Release. 2016;244:167–83.
Stahl AL, Johansson K, Mossberg M, Kahn R, Karpman D. Exosomes and microvesicles in normal physiology, pathophysiology, and renal diseases. Pediatr Nephrol. 2019;34:11–30.
Hessvik NP, Llorente A. Current knowledge on exosome biogenesis and release. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018;75:193–208.
Leone DA, Rees AJ, Kain R. Dendritic cells and routing cargo into exosomes. Immunol Cell Biol. 2018;96:683–93.
Kalluri R, LeBleu VS. The biology, function, and biomedical applications of exosomes. Science. 2020;367:640.
Michaela S, Aigner A. Nucleic acid delivery with extracellular vesicles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2021;173:89–111.
Juan T, Furthauer M. Biogenesis and function of ESCRT-dependent extracellular vesicles. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2018;74:66–77.
Schmidt O, Teis D. The ESCRT machinery. Curr Biol. 2012;22:R116–20.
Cabeza L, Perazzoli G, Pena M, Cepero A, Luque C, Melguizo C, Prados J. Cancer therapy based on extracellular vesicles as drug delivery vehicles. J Controlled Release. 2020;327:296–315.
Dreyer F, Baur A. Biogenesis and functions of exosomes and extracellular vesicles. Methods Mol Biol (Clifton NJ). 2016;1448:201–16.
Patil AA, Rhee WJ. Exosomes: biogenesis, composition, functions, and their role in pre-metastatic niche formation. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2019;24:689–701.
Mashouri L, Yousefi H, Aref AR, Ahadi AM, Molaei F, Alahari SK. Exosomes: composition, biogenesis, and mechanisms in cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Mol Cancer. 2019;18:14.
Cheng LS, Hill AF. Therapeutically harnessing extracellular vesicles. Nat Rev Drug Discovery. 2022;21:379–99.
Mathieu M, Martin-Jaular L, Lavieu G, Thery C. Specificities of secretion and uptake of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles for cell-to-cell communication. Nat Cell Biol. 2019;21:9–17.
Takahashi RU, Prieto-Vila M, Hironaka A, Ochiya T. The role of extracellular vesicle microRNAs in cancer biology. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017;55:648–56.
Zhu SL, Li SY, Yi M, Li N, Wu KM. Roles of microvesicles in tumor progression and clinical applications. Int J Nanomed. 2021;16:7071–90.
Shao HL, Im H, Castro CM, Breakefield X, Weissleder R, Lee HH. New technologies for analysis of extracellular vesicles. Chem Rev. 2018;118:1917–50.
Inal JM, Ansa-Addo EA, Stratton D, Kholia S, Antwi-Baffour SS, Jorfi S, Lange S. Microvesicles in health and disease. Arch Immunol Ther Exp. 2012;60:107–21.
Muralidharan-Chari V, Clancy J, Plou C, Romao M, Chavrier P, Raposo G, D’Souza-Schorey C. ARF6-Regulated shedding of tumor cell-derived plasma membrane microvesicles. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1875–85.
Tricarico C, Clancy J, D’Souza-Schorey C. Biology and biogenesis of shed microvesicles. Small GTPases. 2017;8:220–32.
Atkin-Smith GK, Tixeira R, Paone S, Mathivanan S, Collins C, Liem M, Goodall KJ, Ravichandran KS, Hulett MD, Poon IKH. A novel mechanism of generating extracellular vesicles during apoptosis via a beads-on-a-string membrane structure. Nat Commun. 2015;6:10.
Caruso S, Poon IKH. Apoptotic cell-derived extracellular vesicles: more than just debris. Front Immunol. 2018;9:9.
Mentkowski KI, Snitzer JD, Rusnak S, Lang JK. Therapeutic potential of engineered extracellular vesicles. Aaps J. 2018;20:17.
Lane JD, Allan VJ, Woodman PG. Active relocation of chromatin and endoplasmic reticulum into blebs in late apoptotic cells. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4059–71.
Battistelli M, Falcieri E. Apoptotic bodies: particular extracellular vesicles involved in intercellular communication. Biology-Basel. 2020;9:10.
Depraetere V. Eat me” signals of apoptotic bodies. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E104–4.
Clancy JW, Sedgwick A, Rosse C, Muralidharan-Chari V, Raposo G, Method M, Chavrier P. D’Souza-Schorey C: regulated delivery of molecular cargo to invasive tumour-derived microvesicles. Nat Commun. 2015;6:11.
Feng QY, Zhang CL, Lum D, Druso JE, Blank B, Wilson KF, Welm A, Antonyak MA, Cerione RA. A class of extracellular vesicles from breast cancer cells activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis. Nat Commun. 2017;8:17.
Fontana F, Carollo E, Melling GE, Carter DRF. Extracellular vesicles: emerging modulators of cancer drug resistance. Cancers. 2021;13:16.
Silachev DN, Goryunov KV, Shpilyuk MA, Beznoschenko OS, Morozova NY, Kraevaya EE, Popkov VA, Pevzner IB, Zorova LD, Evtushenko EA, et al. Effect of MSCs and MSC-Derived extracellular vesicles on human blood coagulation. Cells. 2019;8:23.
Malda J, Boere J, van de Lest CHA, van Weeren PR, Wauben AHM. Extracellular vesicles – new tool for joint repair and regeneration. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016;12:243–9.
Wu WC, Song SJ, Zhang Y, Li X. Role of extracellular vesicles in autoimmune pathogenesis. Front Immunol. 2020;11:9.
Agrahari V, Agrahari V, Burnouf PA, Chew CH, Burnouf T. Extracellular microvesicles as New Industrial Therapeutic Frontiers. Trends Biotechnol. 2019;37:707–29.
Xie F, Zhou XX, Fang MY, Li HY, Tu YF, Su P, Zhang L, Zhou FF. Extracellular vesicles in Cancer Immune Microenvironment and Cancer Immunotherapy. Adv Sci. 2019;6:18.
Herrmann IK, Wood MJA, Fuhrmann G. Extracellular vesicles as a next-generation drug delivery platform. Nat Nanotechnol. 2021;16:748–59.
Pang BR, Zhu Y, Ni J, Thompson J, Malouf D, Bucci J, Graham P, Li Y. Extracellular vesicles: the next generation of biomarkers for liquid biopsy-based prostate cancer diagnosis. Theranostics. 2020;10:2309–26.
Yang DB, Zhang WH, Zhang HY, Zhang FQ, Chen LM, Ma LX, Larcher LM, Chen SX, Liu N, Zhao QX, et al. Progress, opportunity, and perspective on exosome isolation – efforts for efficient exosome-based theranostics. Theranostics. 2020;10:3684–707.
Taylor DD, Shah S. Methods of isolating extracellular vesicles impact down-stream analyses of their cargoes. Methods. 2015;87:3–10.
Kurian TK, Banik S, Gopal D, Chakrabarti S, Mazumder N. Elucidating methods for isolation and quantification of Exosomes: a review. Mol Biotechnol. 2021;63:249–66.
Heras KL, Royo F, Garcia-Vallicrosa C, Igartua M, Santos-Vizcaino E, Falcon-Perez JM, Hernandez RM. Extracellular vesicles from hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: isolation, characterization and therapeutic potential for chronic wound healing. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2022;13:18.
Li QY, Wang YL, Xue YY, Qiao LA, Yu GP, Liu YS, Yu SN. Ultrasensitive analysis of exosomes using a 3D self-assembled nanostructured SiO2 microfluidic chip. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2022;14:14693–702.
Cvjetkovic A, Lotvall J, Lasser C. The influence of rotor type and centrifugation time on the yield and purity of extracellular vesicles. J Extracell vesicles. 2014. https://doi.org/10.3402/jev.v3.23111.
Zhang MD, Jin K, Gao L, Zhang ZK, Li F, Zhou FF, Zhang L. Methods and technologies for exosome isolation and characterization. Small Methods. 2018;2:10.
Nordin JZ, Lee Y, Vader P, Mager I, Johansson HJ, Heusermann W, Wiklander OPB, Hallbrink M, Seow Y, Bultema JJ, et al. Ultrafiltration with size-exclusion liquid chromatography for high yield isolation of extracellular vesicles preserving intact biophysical and functional properties. Nanomedicine-Nanotechnol Biol Med. 2015;11:879–83.
Chen JC, Li PL, Zhang TY, Xu ZP, Huang XW, Wang RM, Du LT. Review on strategies and Technologies for Exosome isolation and purification. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022;9:18.
Alzhrani GN, Alanazi ST, Alsharif SY, Albalawi AM, Alsharif AA, Abdel-Maksoud MS, Elsherbiny N. Exosomes: isolation, characterization, and biomedical applications. Cell Biol Int. 2021;45:1807–31.
Arab T, Raffo-Romero A, Van Camp C, Lemaire Q, Le Marrec-Croq F, Drago F, Aboulouard S, Slomianny C, Lacoste AS, Guigon I, et al. Proteomic characterisation of leech microglia extracellular vesicles (EVs): comparison between differential ultracentrifugation and optiprep (TM) density gradient isolation. J Extracell Vesicles. 2019;8:18.
Iwai K, Minamisawa T, Suga K, Yajima Y, Shiba K. Isolation of human salivary extracellular vesicles by iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation and their characterizations. J Extracell Vesicles. 2016;5:17.
Sidhom K, Obi PO, Saleem A. A review of exosomal isolation methods: is size exclusion chromatography the best option? Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21:19.
Monguio-Tortajada M, Moron-Font M, Gamez-Valero A, Carreras-Planella L, Borras FE, Franquesa M. Extracellular-vesicle isolation from different biological fluids by size-exclusion chromatography. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2019;49:e82.
Foers AD, Chatfield S, Dagley LF, Scicluna BJ, Webb AI, Cheng L, Hill AF, Wicks IP, Pang KC. Enrichment of extracellular vesicles from human synovial fluid using size exclusion chromatography. J Extracell Vesicles. 2018;7:13.
Karimi N, Cvjetkovic A, Jang SC, Crescitelli R, Feizi MAH, Nieuwland R, Lotvall J, Lasser C. Detailed analysis of the plasma extracellular vesicle proteome after separation from lipoproteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018;75:2873–86.
Guan S, Yu HL, Yan GQ, Gao MX, Sun WB, Zhang XM. Characterization of urinary exosomes purified with size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation. J Proteome Res. 2020;19:2217–25.
Saad MG, Beyenal H, Dong WJ. Exosomes as powerful engines in cancer: isolation, characterization and detection techniques. Biosensors-Basel. 2021;11:37.
Zhang Y, Bi JY, Huang JY, Tang YN, Du SY, Li PY. Exosome: a review of its classification, isolation techniques, Storage, Diagnostic and targeted therapy applications. Int J Nanomed. 2020;15:6917–34.
Paterna A, Rao ESL, Adamo G, Raccosta S, Picciotto S, Romancino D, Noto R, Touzet N, Bongiovanni A, Manno M. Isolation of extracellular vesicles from microalgae: a renewable and scalable bioprocess. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022;10:12.
Busatto S, Vilanilam G, Ticer T, Lin WL, Dickson DW, Shapiro S, Bergese P, Wolfram J. Tangential flow filtration for highly efficient concentration of extracellular vesicles from large volumes of fluid. Cells. 2018;7:11.
He LQ, Zhu D, Wang JP, Wu XY. A highly efficient method for isolating urinary exosomes. Int J Mol Med. 2019;43:83–90.
Parimon T, Garrett NE, Chen P, Antes TJ. Isolation of extracellular vesicles from murine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using an ultrafiltration centrifugation technique. Jove-J Vis Exp. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3791/58310.
Cardoso RMS, Rodrigues SC, Gomes CF, Duarte FV, Romao M, Leal EC, Freire PC, Neves R, Simoes-Correia J. Development of an optimized and scalable method for isolation of umbilical cord blood-derived small extracellular vesicles for future clinical use. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2021;10:910–21.
Zhang HY, Lyden D. Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation technology for exomere and small extracellular vesicle separation and characterization. Nat Protoc. 2019;14:1027–53.
Zhang P, Yeo JC, Lim CT. Advances in technologies for purification and enrichment of extracellular vesicles. Slas Technol. 2019;24:477–88.
Wu BW, Chen XL, Wang JF, Qing XQ, Wang ZP, Ding X, Xie ZS, Niu LL, Guo XJ, Cai TX, et al. Separation and characterization of extracellular vesicles from human plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Anal Chim Acta. 2020;1127:234–45.
Kang DJ, Oh S, Ahn SM, Lee BH, Moon MH. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from human neural stem cells by flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:3475–80.
Yang JS, Lee JC, Byeon SK, Rha KH, Moon MH. Size dependent lipidomic analysis of urinary exosomes from patients with prostate cancer by flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2017;89:2488–96.
Martins TS, Catita J, Rosa IM, Silva O, Henriques AG. Exosome isolation from distinct biofluids using precipitation and column-based approaches. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:16.
Ludwig AK, De Miroschedji K, Doeppner TR, Borger V, Ruesing J, Rebmann V, Durst S, Jansen S, Bremer M, Behrmann E, et al. Precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by washing and pelleting by ultracentrifugation enriches extracellular vesicles from tissue culture supernatants in small and large scales. J Extracell Vesicles. 2018;7:20.
Martinez-Greene JA, Hernandez-Ortega K, Quiroz-Baez R, Resendis-Antonio O, Pichardo-Casas I, Sinclair DA, Budnik B, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Uribe-Querol E, Ramos-Godinez MD, Martinez-Martinez E. Quantitative proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicle subgroups isolated by an optimized method combining polymer-based precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. J Extracell Vesicles. 2021;10:20.
Karttunen J, Heiskanen M, Navarro-Ferrandis V, Das Gupta S, Lipponen A, Puhakka N, Rilla K, Koistinen A, Pitkanen A. Precipitation-based extracellular vesicle isolation from rat plasma co-precipitate vesicle-free microRNAs. J Extracell Vesicles. 2019;8:10.
Garcia-Romero N, Madurga R, Rackov G, Palacin-Aliana I, Nunez-Torres R, Asensi-Puig A, Carrion-Navarro J, Esteban-Rubio S, Peinado H, Gonzalez-Neira A, et al. Polyethylene glycol improves current methods for circulating extracellular vesicle-derived DNA isolation. J Translational Med. 2019;17:11.
Deregibus MC, Figliolini F, D’Antico S, Manzini PM, Pasquino C, De Lena M, Tetta C, Brizzi MF, Camussi G. Charge-based precipitation of extracellular vesicles. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38:1359–66.
Tan XH, Fang D, Xu YD, Nan TG, Song WP, Gu YY, Gu SJ, Yuan YM, Xin ZC, Zhou LQ, et al. Skimmed bovine milk-derived extracellular vesicles isolated via “Salting-Out”: characterizations and potential functions as Nanocarriers. Front Nutr. 2021;8:15.
Zhou SS, Hu T, Zhang F, Tang DZ, Li DK, Cao J, Wei W, Wu YF, Liu SQ. Integrated Microfluidic device for Accurate Extracellular Vesicle quantification and protein markers analysis directly from human whole blood. Anal Chem. 2020;92:1574–81.
Chen YS, Chen C, Lai CPK, Lee GB. Isolation and digital counting of extracellular vesicles from blood via membrane-integrated microfluidics. Sens Actuators B. 2022;358:131473–3.
Gwak H, Park S, Yu H, Hyun KA, Jung HI. A modular microfluidic platform for serial enrichment and harvest of pure extracellular vesicles. Analyst. 2022;147:1117–27.
Han BH, Kim S, Seo G, Heo Y, Chung S, Kang JY. Isolation of extracellular vesicles from small volumes of plasma using a microfluidic aqueous two-phase system. Lab Chip. 2020;20:3552–9.
Sun N, Tran BV, Peng ZS, Wang J, Zhang C, Yang P, Zhang TX, Widjaja J, Zhang RY, Xia WX, et al. Coupling lipid labeling and click chemistry enables isolation of extracellular vesicles for noninvasive detection of oncogenic gene alterations. Adv Sci. 2022;9:12.
Cheng J, Zhu NH, Zhang YJ, Yu Y, Kang K, Yi QY, Wu Y. Hedgehog-inspired immunomagnetic beads for high-efficient capture and release of exosomes. J Mater Chem B. 2022;10:4059–69.
Yang KG, Jia MQ, Cheddah S, Zhang ZY, Wang WW, Li XY, Wang Y, Yan C. Peptide ligand-SiO2 microspheres with specific affinity for phosphatidylserine as a new strategy to isolate exosomes and application in proteomics to differentiate hepatic cancer. Bioactive Mater. 2022;15:343–54.
Brambilla D, Sola L, Ferretti AM, Chiodi E, Zarovni N, Fortunato D, Criscuoli M, Dolo V, Giusti I, Murdica V, et al. EV separation: release of intact extracellular vesicles immunocaptured on magnetic particles. Anal Chem. 2021;93:5476–83.
Dao TNT, Kim MG, Koo B, Liu HF, Jang YO, Lee HJ, Kim Y, Park YY, Kim HS, Kim CS, Shin Y. Chimeric nanocomposites for the rapid and simple isolation of urinary extracellular vesicles. J Extracell Vesicles. 2022;11:20.
Cho S, Jo W, Heo Y, Kang JY, Kwak R, Park J. Isolation of extracellular vesicle from blood plasma using electrophoretic migration through porous membrane. Sens Actuators B-Chemical. 2016;233:289–97.
Zhang Y, Deng Z, Lou DD, Wang Y, Wang R, Hu R, Zhang X, Zhu QF, Chen YC, Liu F. High-efficiency separation of Extracellular vesicles from lipoproteins in plasma by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Anal Chem. 2020;92:7493–9.
Seo N, Nakamura J, Kaneda T, Tateno H, Shimoda A, Ichiki T, Furukawa K, Hirabayashi J, Akiyoshi K, Shiku H. Distinguishing functional exosomes and other extracellular vesicles as a nucleic acid cargo by the anion-exchange method. J Extracell Vesicles. 2022;11:18.
Walker S, Busatto S, Pham A, Tian M, Suh A, Carson K, Quintero A, Lafrence M, Malik H, Santana MX, Wolfram J. Extracellular vesicle-based drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. Theranostics. 2019;9:8001–17.
Xi XM, Chen M, Xia SJ, Lu R. Drug loading techniques for exosome-based drug delivery systems. Pharmazie. 2021;76:61–7.
Xu C, Zhai ZJ, Ying H, Lu L, Zhang J, Zeng YM. Curcumin primed ADMSCs derived small extracellular vesicle exert enhanced protective effects on osteoarthritis by inhibiting oxidative stress and chondrocyte apoptosis. J Nanobiotechnol. 2022;20:16.
Kim S, Kang JH, Cao TGN, Kang SJ, Jeong K, Kang HC, Kwon YJ, Rhee WJ, Ko YT, Shim MS. Extracellular vesicles with high dual drug loading for safe and efficient combination chemo-phototherapy. Biomaterials Sci. 2022;10:2817–30.
Kim JK, Youn YJ, Lee YB, Kim SH, Song DK, Shin M, Jin HK, Bae JS, Shrestha S, Hong CW. Extracellular vesicles from dHL-60 cells as delivery vehicles for diverse therapeutics. Sci Rep. 2021;11:11.
Qiu YL, Sun JM, Qiu JP, Chen GL, Wang X, Mu YX, Li KS, Wang WJ. Antitumor Activity of Cabazitaxel and MSC-TRAIL Derived Extracellular vesicles in drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Manage Res. 2020;12:10809–20.
Yang Z, Yang Y, Xu YC, Jiang WQ, Shao Y, Xing JH, Chen YB, Han Y. Biomimetic nerve guidance conduit containing engineered exosomes of adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021;12:14.
Yuana Y, Balachandran B, van der Wurff-Jacobs KMG, Schiffelers RM, Moonen CT. Potential use of extracellular vesicles generated by microbubble-assisted ultrasound as drug nanocarriers for cancer treatment. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21:3024.
Zeng WP, Wen ZB, Chen HL, Duan YY. Exosomes as carriers for drug delivery in Cancer Therapy. Pharm Res. 2023;40:873–87.
Jorquera-Cordero C, Lara P, Cruz LJ, Schomann T, van Hofslot A, de Carvalho TG, Guedes PMDM, Creemers L, Koning RI, Chan AB, de Araujo Junior RF. Extracellular vesicles from M1-Polarized macrophages combined with hyaluronic acid and a beta-blocker potentiate doxorubicin’s antitumor activity by downregulating tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer. Pharmaceutics. 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051068.
Gong CA, Tian J, Wang Z, Gao Y, Wu X, Ding XY, Qiang L, Li GR, Han ZM, Yuan YF, Gao S. Functional exosome-mediated co-delivery of doxorubicin and hydrophobically modified microRNA 159 for triple-negative breast cancer therapy. J Nanobiotechnol. 2019;17:18.
Li HZ, Xu W, Li F, Zeng R, Zhang XM, Wang XW, Zhao SJ, Weng J, Li Z, Sun LP. Amplification of anticancer efficacy by co-delivery of doxorubicin and lonidamine with extracellular vesicles. Drug Delivery. 2022;29:192–202.
Haney MJ, Zhao YL, Jin YS, Li SM, Bago JR, Klyachko NL, Kabanov AV, Batrakova EV. Macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles as drug delivery systems for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2020;15:487–500.
Ayed Z, Cuvillier L, Dobhal G, Goreham RV. Electroporation of outer membrane vesicles derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with gold nanoparticles. Sn Appl Sci. 2019;1:9.
Zhu SQ, Huang HY, Liu D, Wen SM, Shen LL, Lin QK. Augmented cellular uptake and homologous targeting of exosome-based drug loaded IOL for posterior capsular opacification prevention and biosafety improvement. Bioactive Mater. 2022;15:469–81.
Li BY, Chen X, Qiu W, Zhao RR, Duan JZ, Zhang SJ, Pan ZW, Zhao SL, Guo QD, Qi YH, et al. Synchronous disintegration of ferroptosis defense axis via engineered exosome-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for glioblastoma therapy. Adv Sci. 2022;9:13.
Tsai HI, Wu YY, Liu XY, Xu ZX, Liu LS, Wang CX, Zhang HX, Huang YS, Wang LL, Zhang WX, et al. Engineered Small Extracellular vesicles as a FGL1/PD-L1 dual-targeting delivery system for alleviating Immune rejection. Adv Sci. 2022;9:13.
Tian R, Wang ZS, Niu RF, Wang HJ, Guan WJ, Chang J. Tumor exosome mimicking nanoparticles for tumor combinatorial chemo-photothermal therapy. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020;8:11.
Peng H, Li Y, Ji WH, Zhao RC, Lu ZG, Shen J, Wu YY, Wang JZ, Hao QL, Wang JW, et al. Intranasal administration of self-oriented nanocarriers based on therapeutic exosomes for synergistic treatment of Parkinson’s disease. ACS Nano. 2022;16:869–84.
Yuan AR, Ruan L, Jia RD, Wang XF, Wu L, Cao J, Qi XY, Wei Y, Shen S. Tumor exosome-mimicking iron oxide nanoparticles for near infrared-responsive drug delivery. Acs Appl Nano Mater. 2022;5:996–1002.
Kimiz-Gebologlu I, Oncel SS. Exosomes: large-scale production, isolation, drug loading efficiency, and biodistribution and uptake. J Controlled Release. 2022;347:533–43.
Guo YH, Hu GW, Xia YG, Li HY, Yuan J, Zhang JT, Chen Y, Guo H, Yang YL, Wang Y, Deng ZF. Eliminating the original cargos of glioblastoma cell-derived small extracellular vesicles for efficient drug delivery to glioblastoma with improved biosafety. Bioactive Mater. 2022;16:204–17.
Cao TGN, Kang JH, Kim W, Lim J, Kang SJ, You JY, Hoang QT, Kim WJ, Rhee WJ, Kim C, et al. Engineered extracellular vesicle-based sonotheranostics for dual stimuli-sensitive drug release and photoacoustic imaging-guided chemo-sonodynamic cancer therapy. Theranostics. 2022;12:1247–66.
Cao TGN, Kang JH, You JY, Kang HC, Rhee WJ, Ko YT, Shim MS. Safe and targeted Sonodynamic Cancer Therapy using Biocompatible Exosome-Based nanosonosensitizers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021;13:25575–88.
Thakur A, Sidu RK, Zou H, Alam MK, Yang MS, Lee YJ. Inhibition of glioma cells’ proliferation by doxorubicin-loaded exosomes via microfluidics. Int J Nanomed. 2020;15:8331–43.
Wang ZY, Rich J, Hao NJ, Gu YY, Chen CY, Yang SJ, Zhang PR, Huang TJ. Acoustofluidics for simultaneous nanoparticle-based drug loading and exosome encapsulation. Microsyst Nanoeng. 2022;8:11.
Jiang YY, Li JD, Xue X, Yin ZF, Xu K, Su JC. Engineered extracellular vesicles for bone therapy. Nano Today. 2022;44:23.
Malekian F, Shamsian A, Kodam SP, Ullah M. Exosome engineering for efficient and targeted drug delivery: current status and future perspective. J Physiol. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP282799.
Xu M, Feng T, Liu BW, Qiu F, Xu YH, Zhao YH, Zheng Y. Engineered exosomes: desirable target-tracking characteristics for cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease therapies. Theranostics. 2021;11:8926–44.
Kwon S, Shin S, Do M, Oh BH, Song Y, Bui VD, Lee ES, Jo DG, Cho YW, Kim DH, Park JH. Engineering approaches for effective therapeutic applications based on extracellular vesicles. J Controlled Release. 2021;330:15–30.
Kim HY, Kwon S, Um W, Shin S, Kim CH, Park JH, Kim BS. Functional extracellular vesicles for regenerative medicine. Small. 2022;18:25.
Xu SY, Liu B, Fan JY, Xue CL, Lu Y, Li C, Cui DX. Engineered mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes with high CXCR4 levels for targeted siRNA gene therapy against cancer. Nanoscale. 2022;14:4098–113.
Zhai X, Chen K, Yang H, Li B, Zhou TJK, Wang HJ, Zhou HP, Chen SF, Zhou XY, Wei XZ, et al. Extracellular vesicles derived from CD73 modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammation after spinal cord injury. J Nanobiotechnol. 2021;19:20.
Zhu QQ, Tang SL, Zhu YW, Chen D, Huang JLY, Lin JY. Exosomes Derived from CTF1-Modified bone marrow stem cells promote endometrial regeneration and restore fertility. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022;10:13.
Zhang J, Yao TT, Wang YX, Yu J, Liu YY, Lin ZQ. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 is downregulated in cervical cancer and affects cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating miR-21. Cancer Biol Ther. 2016;17:104–13.
Huang X, Wu W, Jing DD, Yang LK, Guo HY, Wang LT, Zhang WY, Pu FF, Shao ZW. Engineered exosome as targeted lncRNA MEG3 delivery vehicles for osteosarcoma therapy. J Controlled Release. 2022;343:107–17.
Huang JH, Yu MY, Yin WJ, Liang B, Li A, Li JF, Li XL, Zhao SC, Liu F. Development of a novel RNAi therapy: Engineered miR-31 exosomes promoted the healing of diabetic wounds. Bioactive Mater. 2021;6:2841–53.
Zhao ZX, Shuang T, Gao Y, Lu F, Zhang JB, He W, Qu LJ, Chen BL, Hao Q. Targeted delivery of exosomal miR-484 reprograms tumor vasculature for chemotherapy sensitization. Cancer Lett. 2022;530:45–58.
Fan XY, Li J, Chen PR. Bioorthogonal chemistry in living animals. Natl Sci Rev. 2017;4:300–2.
Wang M, Altinoglu S, Takeda YS, Xu QB. Integrating protein engineering and bioorthogonal click conjugation for extracellular vesicle modulation and intracellular delivery. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:12.
Song S, Shim MK, Lim S, Moon Y, Yang S, Kim J, Hong Y, Yoon HY, Kim IS, Hwang KY, Kim K. In situ one-step fluorescence labeling strategy of exosomes via bioorthogonal click chemistry for real-time exosome tracking in vitro and in vivo. Bioconjug Chem. 2020;31:1562–74.
Tian T, Zhang HX, He CP, Fan S, Zhu YL, Qi C, Huang NP, Xiao ZD, Lu ZH, Tannous BA, Gao J. Surface functionalized exosomes as targeted drug delivery vehicles for cerebral ischemia therapy. Biomaterials. 2018;150:137–49.
Xu LZ, Faruqu FN, Liam-or R, Abu Abed O, Li DY, Venner K, Errington RJ, Summers H, Wang J, Al-Jamal KT. Design of experiment (DoE)-driven in vitro and in vivo uptake studies of exosomes for pancreatic cancer delivery enabled by copper-free click chemistry-based labelling. J Extracell Vesicles. 2020;9:19.
Zheng D, Ruan H, Chen W, Zhang Y, Cui W, Chen H, Shen H. Advances in extracellular vesicle functionalization strategies for tissue regeneration. Bioactive Mater. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.07.022.
Rayamajhi S, Aryal S. Surface functionalization strategies of extracellular vesicles. J Mater Chem B. 2020;8:4552–69.
Zhou X, Miao YQ, Wang Y, He SF, Guo LM, Mao JS, Chen MS, Yang YT, Zhang XX, Gan Y. Tumour-derived extracellular vesicle membrane hybrid lipid nanovesicles enhance siRNA delivery by tumour-homing and intracellular freeway transportation. J Extracell Vesicles. 2022;11:16.
Ishikawa R, Yoshida S, Sawada S, Sasaki Y, Akiyoshi K. Development and single-particle analysis of hybrid extracellular vesicles fused with liposomes using viral fusogenic proteins. Febs Open Bio. 2022;12:1178–87.
Li LX, He D, Guo QQ, Zhang ZY, Ru D, Wang LT, Gong K, Liu FF, Duan YR, Li H. Exosome-liposome hybrid nanoparticle codelivery of TP and miR497 conspicuously overcomes chemoresistant ovarian cancer. J Nanobiotechnol. 2022;20:22.
Sun LN, Fan MR, Huang D, Li BQ, Xu RT, Gao F, Chen YZ. Clodronate-loaded liposomal and fibroblast-derived exosomal hybrid system for enhanced drug delivery to pulmonary fibrosis. Biomaterials. 2021;271:14.
Cheng LL, Zhang XG, Tang JJ, Lv QJ, Liu J. Gene-engineered exosomes-thermosensitive liposomes hybrid nanovesicles by the blockade of CD47 signal for combined photothermal therapy and cancer immunotherapy. Biomaterials. 2021;275:15.
Piffoux M, Silva AKA, Wilhelm C, Gazeau F, Tareste D. Modification of Extracellular vesicles by Fusion with Liposomes for the design of Personalized Biogenic Drug Delivery Systems. ACS Nano. 2018;12:6830–42.
Rayamajhi S, Nguyen TDT, Marasini R, Aryal S. Macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic hybrid vesicles for tumor targeted drug delivery. Acta Biomater. 2019;94:482–94.
Tamura R, Uemoto S, Tabata Y. Augmented liver targeting of exosomes by surface modification with cationized pullulan. Acta Biomater. 2017;57:274–84.
Hu SQ, Wang XY, Li ZH, Zhu DS, Cores J, Wang ZZ, Li JL, Mei X, Cheng X, Su T, Cheng K. Platelet membrane and stem cell exosome hybrids enhance cellular uptake and targeting to heart injury. Nano Today. 2021;39:12.
Li QY, Song YN, Wang QZ, Chen J, Gao JF, Tan HP, Li S, Wu Y, Yang HB, Huang HW, et al. Engineering extracellular vesicles with platelet membranes fusion enhanced targeted therapeutic angiogenesis in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Theranostics. 2021;11:3916–31.
Man K, Brunet MY, Jones MC, Cox SC. Engineered Extracellular vesicles: tailored-made nanomaterials for medical applications. Nanomaterials. 2020;10:30.
Liang SF, Zuo FF, Yin BC, Ye BC. Delivery of siRNA based on engineered exosomes for glioblastoma therapy by targeting STAT3. Biomaterials Sci. 2022;10:1582–90.
Ruan H, Li Y, Wang C, Jiang Y, Han Y, Li Y, Zheng D, Ye J, Chen G, Yang G-y, et al. Click chemistry extracellular vesicle/peptide/chemokine nanocarriers for treating central nervous system injuries. Acta Pharm Sinica B. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2022.06.007.
Fan B, Yang S, Wang YY, Zhang C, Yang JP, Wang LQ, Lv ZQ, Shi XF, Fan ZZ, Yang JK. Indocyanine green-loaded exosomes for image-guided glioma nano-therapy. J Exp Nanosci. 2022;17:187–96.
Wu Q, Fu XL, Li X, Li J, Han WJ, Wang YJ. Modification of adipose mesenchymal stem cells-derived small extracellular vesicles with fibrin-targeting peptide CREKA for enhanced bone repair. Bioactive Mater. 2023;20:208–20.
Rehman FU, Liu Y, Yang Q, Yang H, Liu R, Zhang D, Muhammad P, Liu Y, Hanif S, Ismail M, et al. Heme Oxygenase-1 targeting exosomes for temozolomide resistant glioblastoma synergistic therapy. J Control Release. 2022;345:696–708.
Wang CY, Kimura K, Li JC, Richardson JJ, Naito M, Miyata K, Ichiki T, Ejima H. Polydopamine-mediated surface functionalization of exosomes. Chemnanomat. 2021;7:592–5.
Cui YZ, Guo YY, Kong L, Shi JY, Liu P, Li R, Geng YT, Gao WH, Zhang ZP, Fu DH. A bone-targeted engineered exosome platform delivering siRNA to treat osteoporosis. Bioactive Mater. 2022;10:207–21.
Chen CX, Sun MD, Liu X, Wu WJ, Su LY, Li YM, Liu G, Yan XM. General and mild modification of food-derived extracellular vesicles for enhanced cell targeting. Nanoscale. 2021;13:3061–9.
Bernardi S, Balbi C. Extracellular vesicles: from biomarkers to therapeutic tools. Biology-Basel. 2020;9:6.
Ke CH, Hou H, Su K, Huang CH, Yuan Q, Li SY, Sun JW, Lin Y, Wu CB, Zhao Y, Yuan ZQ. Extracellular vesicle-mediated co-delivery of TRAIL and dinaciclib for targeted therapy of resistant tumors. Biomaterials Sci. 2022;10:1498–514.
Liu Y, Luo JS, Chen XJ, Liu W, Chen TK. Cell membrane coating technology: a promising strategy for biomedical applications. Nano-Micro Lett. 2019;11:46.
Riley RS, June CH, Langer R, Mitchell MJ. Delivery technologies for cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Drug Discovery. 2019;18:175–96.
Nie WD, Wu GH, Zhang JF, Huang LL, Ding JJ, Jiang AQ, Zhang YH, Liu YH, Li JC, Pu KY, Xie HY. Responsive exosome nano-bioconjugates for synergistic cancer therapy. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2020;59:2018–22.
Zhang JH, Ji C, Zhang HB, Shi H, Mao F, Qian H, Xu WR, Wang DQ, Pan JM, Fang XJ, et al. Engineered neutrophil-derived exosome-like vesicles for targeted cancer therapy. Sci Adv. 2022;8:13.
Zhang MJ, Shao WX, Yang TR, Liu HL, Guo S, Zhao DY, Weng YH, Liang XJ, Huang YY. Conscription of Immune cells by light-activatable silencing NK-Derived Exosome (LASNEO) for synergetic tumor eradication. Adv Sci. 2022;9:15.
Zhou WX, Zhou Y, Chen XL, Ning TT, Chen HY, Guo Q, Zhang YW, Liu PX, Zhang YJ, Li C, et al. Pancreatic cancer-targeting exosomes for enhancing immunotherapy and reprogramming tumor microenvironment. Biomaterials. 2021;268:12.
Ortiz-Bonilla CJ, Uccello TP, Gerber SA, Lord EM, Messing EM, Lee YF. Bladder cancer extracellular vesicles elicit a CD8 T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23:15.
Wang RN, Liang QF, Zhang XR, Di ZN, Wang XH, Di LQ. Tumor-derived exosomes reversing TMZ resistance by synergistic drug delivery for glioma-targeting treatment. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2022;215:11.
Wang J, Tang W, Yang M, Yin Y, Li H, Hu FF, Tang L, Ma XY, Zhang Y, Wang YZ. Inflammatory tumor microenvironment responsive neutrophil exosomes-based drug delivery system for targeted glioma therapy. Biomaterials. 2021;273:12.
Ge RF, Cao J, Chi JN, Han SC, Liang Y, Xu LS, Liang MT, Sun Y. NIR-guided dendritic nanoplatform for improving antitumor efficacy by combining chemo-phototherapy. Int J Nanomed. 2019;14:4931–47.
Ma YY, Zhang YQ, Han R, Li Y, Zhai YW, Qian ZY, Gu YQ, Li SW. A cascade synergetic strategy induced by photothermal effect based on platelet exosome nanoparticles for tumor therapy. Biomaterials. 2022;282:13.
Liu J, Yi KZ, Zhang Q, Xu H, Zhang XG, He D, Wang FB, Xiao XH. Strong Penetration-Induced Effective Photothermal therapy by exosome-mediated black Phosphorus Quantum Dots. Small. 2021;17:9.
Zhu DM, Zhang TF, Li Y, Huang CY, Suo M, Xia LG, Xu YH, Li GX, Tang BZ. Tumor-derived exosomes co-delivering aggregation-induced emission luminogens and proton pump inhibitors for tumor glutamine starvation therapy and enhanced type-I photodynamic therapy. Biomaterials. 2022;283:8.
Du JB, Wan Z, Wang C, Lu F, Wei MY, Wang DS, Hao Q. Designer exosomes for targeted and efficient ferroptosis induction in cancer via chemo-photodynamic therapy. Theranostics. 2021;11:8185–96.
Bose RJC, Kumar US, Garcia-Marques F, Zeng YT, Habte F, McCarthy JR, Pitteri S, Massoud TF, Paulmurugan R. Engineered cell-derived vesicles displaying targeting peptide and functionalized with nanocarriers for therapeutic microRNA delivery to triple-negative breast cancer in mice. Adv Healthc Mater. 2022;11:13.
Tao HY, Xu HL, Zuo L, Li C, Qiao G, Guo MY, Zheng LH, Leitgeb M, Lin XK. Exosomes-coated bcl-2 siRNA inhibits the growth of digestive system tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;161:470–80.
Yuan L, Liu YQ, Qu YH, Liu L, Li HX. Exosomes derived from MicroRNA-148b-3p-Overexpressing human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells restrain breast Cancer progression. Front Oncol. 2019;9:14.
Wang XJ, Ding H, Li ZY, Peng YN, Tan H, Wang CL, Huang GD, Li WP, Ma GH, Wei W. Exploration and functionalization of M1-macrophage extracellular vesicles for effective accumulation in glioblastoma and strong synergistic therapeutic effects. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2022;7:16.
Huang HQ, Shao LL, Chen Y, Tang L, Liu TQ, Li JX, Zhu HY. Synergistic strategy with hyperthermia therapy based immunotherapy and engineered exosomes-liposomes targeted chemotherapy prevents tumor recurrence and metastasis in advanced breast cancer. Bioeng Translational Med. 2022;7:18.
Pan SJ, Zhang YH, Huang M, Deng ZF, Zhang A, Pei LJ, Wang LR, Zhao WY, Ma LJ, Zhang Q, Cui DX. Urinary exosomes-based engineered nanovectors for homologously targeted chemo-chemodynamic prostate cancer therapy via abrogating EGFR/AKT/NF-kB/IkB signaling. Biomaterials. 2021;275:13.
Wang XW, Zhang YM, Mu XF, Tu CR, Chung Y, Tsao SW, Chan GCF, Leung WH, Lau YL, Liu YP, Tu WW. Exosomes derived from gamma delta-T cells synergize with radiotherapy and preserve antitumor activities against nasopharyngeal carcinoma in immunosuppressive microenvironment. J Immunother Cancer. 2022;10:15.
Chen K, Si YN, Guan JS, Zhou ZX, Kim S, Kim T, Shan L, Willey CD, Zhou LF, Liu XG. Targeted extracellular vesicles delivered Verrucarin A to treat Glioblastoma. Biomedicines. 2022;10:15.
Yang ZM, Li YY, Wang ZH. Recent advances in the application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease therapies. Pharmaceutics. 2022;14:18.
Ferrantelli F, Chiozzini C, Leone P, Manfredi F, Federico M. Engineered extracellular vesicles/exosomes as a new tool against neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12:17.
Salarpour S, Barani M, Pardakhty A, Khatami M, Chauhan NPS. The application of exosomes and exosome-nanoparticle in treating brain disorders. J Mol Liq. 2022;350:15.
Cheng GW, Liu YJ, Ma R, Cheng GP, Guan YC, Chen XJ, Wu ZF, Chen TK. Anti-parkinsonian therapy: strategies for crossing the blood-brain barrier and nano-biological effects of nanomaterials. Nano-Micro Lett. 2022;14:49.
Zhao YL, Haney MJ, Fallon JK, Rodriguez M, Swain CJ, Arzt CJ, Smith PC, Loop MS, Harrison EB, El-Hage N, Batrakova EV. Using extracellular vesicles released by GDNF-Transfected macrophages for therapy of Parkinson disease. Cells. 2022;11:21.
Wang Q, Li T, Yang JY, Zhao ZA, Tan KY, Tang SW, Wan MM, Mao C. Engineered exosomes with independent module/cascading function for therapy of parkinson’s disease by multistep targeting and multistage intervention method. Adv Mater. 2022;34:14.
Wang YL, Pang JY, Wang QY, Yan LC, Wang LT, Xing Z, Wang CM, Zhang JF, Dong L. Delivering antisense oligonucleotides across the blood-brain barrier by Tumor Cell-Derived Small apoptotic bodies. Adv Sci. 2021;8:13.
Xue CL, Li XC, Ba L, Zhang MJ, Yang Y, Gao Y, Sun Z, Han Q, Zhao RCH. MSC-Derived exosomes can enhance the angiogenesis of human brain MECs and show therapeutic potential in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Aging and Disease. 2021;12:1211–22.
Izco M, Blesa J, Schleef M, Schmeer M, Porcari R, Al-Shawi R, Ellmerich S, de Toro M, Gardiner C, Seow Y, et al. Systemic exosomal delivery of shRNA minicircles prevents Parkinsonian Pathology. Mol Ther. 2019;27:2111–22.
Kojima R, Bojar D, Rizzi G, Hamri GCE, El-Baba MD, Saxena P, Auslander S, Tan KR, Fussenegger M. Designer exosomes produced by implanted cells intracerebrally deliver therapeutic cargo for Parkinson’s disease treatment. Nat Commun. 2018;9:10.
Wang H, Sui HJ, Zheng Y, Jiang YB, Shi YJ, Liang J, Zhao L. Curcumin-primed exosomes potently ameliorate cognitive function in AD mice by inhibiting hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein through the AKT/GSK-3 beta pathway. Nanoscale. 2019;11:7481–96.
Qi Y, Guo L, Jiang YB, Shi YJ, Sui HJ, Zhao L. Brain delivery of quercetin-loaded exosomes improved cognitive function in AD mice by inhibiting phosphorylated tau-mediated neurofibrillary tangles. Drug Delivery. 2020;27:745–55.
Li M, Fang F, Sun M, Zhang YF, Hu M, Zhang JF. Extracellular vesicles as bioactive nanotherapeutics: an emerging paradigm for regenerative medicine. Theranostics. 2022;12:4879–903.
Zarubova J, Hasani-Sadrabadi MM, Dashtimoghadam E, Zhang XX, Ansari S, Li S, Moshaverinia A. Engineered delivery of dental stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles for periodontal tissue regeneration. Adv Healthc Mater. 2022;11:10.
Kim H, Jang Y, Kim EH, Jang H, Cho H, Han G, Song HK, Kim SH, Yang Y. Potential of colostrum-derived exosomes for promoting hair regeneration through the transition from telogen to anagen phase. Front Cell Dev Biology. 2022;10:12.
Xia WZ, Li MX, Jiang XY, Huang X, Gu SC, Ye JQ, Zhu LX, Hou M, Zan T. Young fibroblast-derived exosomal microRNA-125b transfers beneficial effects on aged cutaneous wound healing. J Nanobiotechnol. 2022;20:17.
Li FY, Wu J, Li DY, Hao LZ, Li YQ, Yi D, Yeung KWK, Chen D, Lu WW, Pan HB, et al. Engineering stem cells to produce exosomes with enhanced bone regeneration effects: an alternative strategy for gene therapy. J Nanobiotechnol. 2022;20:23.
Lan YH, Xie HZ, Jin QR, Zhao XM, Shi Y, Zhou YY, Hu ZH, Ye Y, Huang XY, Sun YJ, et al. Extracellular vesicles derived from neural EGFL-Like 1-modified mesenchymal stem cells improve acellular bone regeneration via the mir-25-5p-SMAD2 signaling axis. Bioactive Mater. 2022;17:457–70.
Ko KW, Park SY, Lee EH, Yoo YI, Kim DS, Kim JY, Kwon TG, Han DK. Integrated bioactive scaffold with polydeoxyribonucleotide and stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles for kidney regeneration. ACS Nano. 2021;15:7575–85.
Song BW, Lee CY, Kim R, Kim WJ, Lee HW, Lee MY, Kim J, Jeong JY, Chang W. Multiplexed targeting of miRNA-210 in stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles promotes selective regeneration in ischemic hearts. Exp Mol Med. 2021;53:695–708.
Luo ZW, Sun YY, Qi BJ, Lin JR, Chen YS, Xu YZ, Chen JW. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit shoulder stiffness via let-7a/Tgfbr1 axis. Bioactive Mater. 2022;17:344–59.
Gao J, Wang SH, Wang ZJ. High yield, scalable and remotely drug-loaded neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) for anti-inflammation therapy. Biomaterials. 2017;135:62–73.
Yan FL, Zhong ZR, Wang Y, Feng Y, Mei ZQ, Li H, Chen X, Cai L, Li CH. Exosome-based biomimetic nanoparticles targeted to inflamed joints for enhanced treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Nanobiotechnol. 2020;18:15.
Ma C, Qi X, Wei YF, Li Z, Zhang HL, Li H, Yu FL, Pu YN, Huang YC, Ren YX. Amelioration of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy using umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles. Bioactive Mater. 2023;19:139–54.
Han HS, Lee H, You D, Nguyen V, Song DG, Oh BH, Shin S, Choi JS, Kim JD, Pan CH, et al. Human adipose stem cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles for treatment of chronic liver fibrosis. J Controlled Release. 2020;320:328–36.
Wang C, Xing CY, Li ZL, Liu YN, Li QY, Wang YX, Hu J, Yuan LJ, Yang GD. Bioinspired therapeutic platform based on extracellular vesicles for prevention of arterial wall remodeling in hypertension. Bioactive Mater. 2022;8:494–504.
Moisseiev E, Anderson JD, Oltjen S, Goswami M, Zawadzki RJ, Nolta JA, Park SS. Protective effect of Intravitreal Administration of Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells on retinal ischemia. Curr Eye Res. 2017;42:1358–67.
Tang TT, Wang B, Lv LL, Liu BC. Extracellular vesicle-based Nanotherapeutics: emerging frontiers in anti-inflammatory therapy. Theranostics. 2020;10:8111–29.
Kaneko S, Takasawa K, Asada K, Shinkai N, Bolatkan A, Yamada M, Takahashi S, Machino H, Kobayashi K, Komatsu M, Hamamoto R. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 pathogenesis. Biomedicines. 2021;9:15.
Rezabakhsh A, Mahdipour M, Nourazarian A, Habibollahi P, Sokullu E, Avci CB, Rahbarghazi R. Application of exosomes for the alleviation of COVID-19-related pathologies. Cell Biochem Funct. 2022;40:430–8.
Mazini L, Rochette L, Malka G. Exosomes contribution in COVID-19 patients’ treatment. J Translational Med. 2021;19:8.
Sengupta V, Sengupta S, Lazo A, Woods P, Nolan A, Bremer N. Exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as treatment for severe COVID-19. Stem Cells Dev. 2020;29:747–54.
Grigoropoulos I, Tsioulos G, Kastrissianakis A, Shapira S, Arber N, Poulakou G, Syrigos K, Rapti V, Xynogalas I, Leontis K, et al. Safety and potential efficacy of exosomes overexpressing CD24 (EXO-CD24) for the prevention of clinical deterioration in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19: a phase II, randomized, single-blinded study. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofac492.991.
Gul F, Gonen ZB, Jones OY, Tasli NP, Zararsiz G, Unal E, Ozdarendeli A, Sahin F, Eken A, Yilmaz S, et al. A pilot study for treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia by aerosolized formulation of convalescent human immune plasma exosomes (ChipEXO (TM)). Front Immunol. 2022;13:8.
Thone MN, Kwon YJ. Extracellular blebs: artificially-induced extracellular vesicles for facile production and clinical translation. Methods. 2020;177:135–45.
Gupta D, Zickler AM, El Andaloussi S. Dosing extracellular vesicles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2021;178:113961.
Li S, Xu JL, Qian J, Gao XH. Engineering extracellular vesicles for cancer therapy: recent advances and challenges in clinical translation. Biomaterials Sci. 2020;8:6978–91.
Bosch S, de Beaurepaire L, Allard M, Mosser M, Heichette C, Chretien D, Jegou D, Bach JM. Trehalose prevents aggregation of exosomes and cryodamage. Sci Rep. 2016;6:11.
Taghikhani A, Farzaneh F, Sharifzad F, Mardpour S, Ebrahimi M, Hassan ZM. Engineered tumor-derived extracellular vesicles: potentials in cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2020;11:9.
Zhao Y, Li XL, Zhang WB, Yu LL, Wang Y, Deng Z, Liu MW, Mo SS, Wang RN, Zhao JM, et al. Trends in the biological functions and medical applications of extracellular vesicles and analogues. Acta Pharm Sinica B. 2021;11:2114–35.
Thery C, Ostrowski M, Segura E. Membrane vesicles as conveyors of immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:581–93.
Shirejini SZ, Inci F. The Yin and Yang of exosome isolation methods: conventional practice, microfluidics, and commercial kits. Biotechnol Adv. 2022;54:19.
Liu DSK, Upton FM, Rees E, Limb C, Jiao LR, Krell J, Frampton AE. Size-exclusion chromatography as a technique for the investigation of novel extracellular vesicles in cancer. Cancers. 2020;12:19.
Mohammadi M, Zargartalebi H, Salahandish R, Aburashed R, Yong KW, Sanati-Nezhad A. Emerging technologies and commercial products in exosome-based cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Biosens Bioelectron. 2021;183:27.
Janouskova O, Herma R, Semeradtova A, Poustka D, Liegertova M, Malinska HA, Maly J. Conventional and nonconventional sources of exosomes-isolation methods and influence on their downstream biomedical application. Front Mol Biosci. 2022;9:20.
Yu D, Li YX, Wang MY, Gu JM, Xu WR, Cai H, Fang XJ, Zhang X. Exosomes as a new frontier of cancer liquid biopsy. Mol Cancer. 2022;21:33.
Li P, Kaslan M, Lee SH, Yao J, Gao ZQ. Progress in Exosome isolation techniques. Theranostics. 2017;7:789–804.
Haney MJ, Zhao YL, Jin YS, Batrakova EV. Extracellular vesicles as drug carriers for enzyme replacement therapy to treat CLN2 Batten disease: optimization of drug administration routes. Cells. 2020;9:16.
Liu W, Yu MY, Chen F, Wang LQ, Ye C, Chen Q, Zhu Q, Xie D, Shao MZ, Yang LL. A novel delivery nanobiotechnology: engineered miR-181b exosomes improved osteointegration by regulating macrophage polarization. J Nanobiotechnol. 2021;19:18.
Xiao Y, Tian J, Wu WC, Gao YH, Guo YX, Song SJ, Gao R, Wang LB, Wu XY, Zhang Y, Li X. Targeting central nervous system extracellular vesicles enhanced triiodothyronine remyelination effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Bioactive Mater. 2022;9:373–84.
Han SQ, Li GC, Jia M, Zhao YL, He CL, Huang MX, Jiang LW, Wu MJ, Yang JH, Ji XQ, et al. Delivery of Anti-miRNA-221 for colorectal carcinoma therapy using modified cord blood mesenchymal stem cells-derived Exosomes. Front Mol Biosci. 2021;8:8.
Wu XY, Liao BY, Xiao D, Wu WC, Xiao Y, Alexander T, Song SJ, Zhao ZH, Zhang YA, Wang ZH, et al. Encapsulation of bryostatin-1 by targeted exosomes enhances remyelination and neuroprotection effects in the cuprizone-induced demyelinating animal model of multiple sclerosis. Biomaterials Sci. 2022;10:714–27.
Kim G, Lee Y, Ha J, Han S, Lee M. Engineering exosomes for pulmonary delivery of peptides and drugs to inflammatory lung cells by inhalation. J Controlled Release. 2021;330:684–95.
Lin D, Zhang HY, Liu R, Deng T, Ning T, Bai M, Yang YC, Zhu KG, Wang JY, Duan JJ, et al. iRGD-modified exosomes effectively deliver CPT1A siRNA to colon cancer cells, reversing oxaliplatin resistance by regulating fatty acid oxidation. Mol Oncol. 2021;15:3430–46.
Lin Y, Wu JH, Gu WH, Huang YL, Tong ZC, Huang LJ, Tan JL. Exosome-liposome hybrid nanoparticles deliver CRISPR/Cas9 system in MSCs. Adv Sci. 2018;5:9.
Matsuki Y, Yanagawa T, Sumiyoshi H, Yasuda J, Nakao S, Goto M, Shibata-Seki T, Akaike T, Inagaki Y. Modification of exosomes with carbonate apatite and a glycan polymer improves transduction efficiency and target cell selectivity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021;583:93–9.
You DG, Oh BH, Nguyen V, Lim GT, Um W, Jung JM, Jeon J, Choi JS, Choi YC, Jung YJ, et al. Vitamin A-coupled stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate the fibrotic cascade by targeting activated hepatic stellate cells in vivo. J Controlled Release. 2021;336:285–95.
Li D, Yao SR, Zhou ZF, Shi J, Huang ZH, Wu ZM. Hyaluronan decoration of milk exosomes directs tumor -specific delivery of doxorubicin. Carbohydr Res. 2020;493:5.
Zheng LR, Zhang BY, Chu HS, Cheng P, Li HY, Huang KL, He XY, Xu WT. Assembly andin vitroassessment of a powerful combination: aptamer-modified exosomes combined with gold nanorods for effective photothermal therapy. Nanotechnology. 2020;31:11.
Bagheri E, Abnous K, Farzad SA, Taghdisi SM, Ramezani M, Alibolandi M. Targeted doxorubicin-loaded mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes as a versatile platform for fighting against colorectal cancer. Life Sci. 2020;261:10.
Kang CS, Han P, Lee JS, Lee D, Kim D. Anchor, Spacer, and ligand-modified Engineered Exosomes for Trackable targeted therapy. Bioconjug Chem. 2020;31:2541–52.
Phung CD, Pham TT, Nguyen HT, Nguyen TT, Ou WQ, Jeong JH, Choi HG, Ku SK, Yong CS, Kim JO. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody-functionalized dendritic cell-derived exosomes targeting tumor-draining lymph nodes for effective induction of antitumor T-cell responses. Acta Biomater. 2020;115:371–82.
Li S, Wu YJ, Ding F, Yang JP, Li J, Gao XH, Zhang C, Feng J. Engineering macrophage-derived exosomes for targeted chemotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer. Nanoscale. 2020;12:10854–62.
Morse MA, Garst J, Osada T, Khan S, Hobeika A, Clay TM, Valente N, Shreeniwas R, Sutton MA, Delcayre A, et al. A phase I study of dexosome immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Translational Med. 2005;3:8.
Escudier B, Dorval T, Chaput N, Andre F, Caby MP, Novault S, Flament C, Leboulaire C, Borg C, Amigorena S, et al. Vaccination of metastatic melanoma patients with autologous dendritic cell (DC) derived-exosomes: results of thefirst phase I clinical trial. J Translational Med. 2005;3:13.
Dai S, Wei D, Wu Z, Zhou X, Wei X, Huang H, Li G. Phase I clinical trial of autologous ascites-derived exosomes combined with GM-CSF for colorectal cancer. Mol Ther. 2008;16:782–90.
Besse B, Charrier M, Lapierre V, Dansin E, Lantz O, Planchard D, Le Chevalier T, Livartoski A, Barlesik F, Laplanche A, et al. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes as maintenance immunotherapy after first line chemotherapy in NSCLC. Oncoimmunology. 2016;5:13.
Gao Y, Zhang H, Zhou N, Xu P, Wang J, Gao Y, Jin X, Liang X, Lv J, Zhang Y, et al. Methotrexate-loaded tumour-cell-derived microvesicles can relieve biliary obstruction in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Biomed Eng. 2020;4:743–53.