Strategies and applications of generating spin polarization in organic semiconductors

The advent of spintronics has undoubtedly revolutionized data storage, processing, and sensing applications. Organic semiconductors (OSCs), characterized by long spin relaxation times (>μs) and abundant spin-dependent properties, have emerged as promising materials for advanced spintronic applications. To successfully implement spin-related functions in organic spintronic devices, the four fundamental processes of spin generation, transport, manipulation, and detection form the main building blocks and are commonly in demand. Thereinto, the effective generation of spin polarization in OSCs is a precondition, but in practice, this has not been an easy task. In this context, considerable efforts have been made on this topic, covering novel materials systems, spin-dependent theories, and device fabrication technologies. In this review, we underline recent advances in external spin injection and organic property-induced spin polarization, according to the distinction between the sources of spin polarization. We focused mainly on summarizing and discussing both the physical mechanism and representative research on spin generation in OSCs, especially for various spin injection methods, organic magnetic materials, the chiral-induced spin selectivity effect, and the spinterface effect. Finally, the challenges and prospects that allow this topic to continue to be dynamic were outlined.